Appendix M: How to use Particles 「に」 and 「で」

<< Typical grammatical functions of に >>
  1. Point of time, which it takes place (specified terms of digit)
  2. Indirect Object: to, for (transfer from one person to another)
  3. Destination with a specific purpose : to, toward
  4. Purpose: to do so
  5. Direct Contact: on, onto (surface of something upon which action directly take place)
  6. Locational Existence: in, at, on
  7. Change/Transform: to , into
  8. Source/Agent: by, from
  9. Compare: compare with, equivalent to
  10. Criteria
<< Typical grammatical functions of で >>
  1. Time: when something terminates or the amount of time a period of activity has taken at; termination time
  2. Required Time: location of action, activity, space
  3. Required Cost: for
  4. Place: location of action, activity, space
  5. Material: with
  6. Instrument/Tool: by
  7. Means: by, in
  8. Cause: due to
  9. Reason: because of
  10. Contrast:
  11. Required Quantity:
<< に・で Excercise >>
<< Notes >>  親類(しんるい)relatives[=親戚(しんせき)]
 退職(たいしょく)[スル]−leaving business // resignation // retiral // retire // retirement from a company
 影響(えいきょう)[スル]−affection // aftermath // bearing // effect // impression // infection // influence
 性格(せいかく)attribute // character
 りっぱ[ナ形]−admirable // fine // good // gradely // high-toned // lordly // magnificent // nice // outstanding
 成田空港(なりたくうこう)Narita Airport
 ワープロ[N]−[ワー]ド・[プロ]セッサー
Word Prosessor