Japanese Lesson (5) - Counting Objects

<< Dialogue: Japanese >> 状況(じょうきょう):スミス()がカメラ()でカメラを()う。
<< Dialogue: English >> Situation: Mr. Smith buys a camera at a camera shop.
Smith : Excuse me. How much is that camera?
Clerk : Which one, sir?
Smith : That small camera.
Clerk : This one? It's ¥25,000. Here you are.
Smith : I'll take this. And please let me have three (rolls of) film.
□The small camera is ¥25,000.
<< Vocabulary >> その:that; カメラ:camera; カメラ():camera store/camera seller; 〜():store/seller;
どれ:which; (ちい)さい:small/little; それから:and; フイルム:film; (みっ)つ:three;
この:this;ひとつ:1;電池:battery;あの:that one (over there);イギリス:United Kingdom;イタリア:Italy;フランス:France;どこ:where;赤い:red[Ai];日本語:Japanese language;−語:language;テープ:tape;(おお)きい:big[Ai];
いつつ:5;みかん:tangerine;2キロ:2 kilograms;−キロ:kilogram;切手(きって):postage stamp;10(まい):10 sheets;−(まい):(counter);ビール:beer;12(ほん):12 bottles;−(ぽん)/−(ほん)/−(ぼん):(counter);どの:which;(あお)い:blue[Ai];(くろ)い:black[Ai];
<< Notes >>
カメラ() means not only "camera store" but also the store owner or store clerk. () is added to many things to mean the store or the person selling something.
(れい)花屋(はなや),"flower shop, florist"; 魚屋(さかなや), "fish shop, fish seller"; 本屋(ほんや), "book store, book seller."
それから, "and, and also, and then, after that, in addition," is a connective placed at the beginning of a new sentence to connect to the previous one.
In Japanese there are two numerical systems, the ひとつ, ふたつ, みっつ system and the abstract いち, に, さん system. Counting things can be done in two ways:
  1. Using the ひとつ, ふたつ, みっつ system independently.
    (れい):フィルムをみっつください. "Please give me three (rolls of) film."
  2. Using the いち, に, さん system combined with a counter. Two counters are -(まい), for thin, flat objects such as paper, records, etc., and -ぼん(ほん, -ぽん), for long, slender objects such as pencils, bottles, etc., Other counters appear in the appropreate place in the text, and they are given comprehensively in Appendix I.
    (まい)(how many ..... 何枚(なんまい)) (ぽん)/(ほん)/(ぼん)(how many ..... 何本(なんぼん))
    一枚(いちまい) 七枚(しちまい)七枚(ななまい) 一本(いっぽん) 七本(ななほん)
    二枚(にまい) 八枚(はちまい) 二本(にほん) 八本(はちほん)/八本(はっぽん)
    三枚(さんまい) 九枚(きゅうまい) 三本(さんぼん) 九本(きゅうほん)
    四枚(よんまい) 十枚(じゅうまい) 四本(よんほん) 十本(じゅっぽん)
    五枚(ごまい) 十一枚(じゅういちまい) 五本(ごほん) 十一本(じゅういっぽん)
    六枚(ろくまい) 十二枚(じゅうにまい) 六本(ろっぽん) 十二本(じゅうにほん)

    (れい):はがきを三枚(さんまい)ください. "Please give me three postcards." (lit. "three 'sheets of'")
    Note: The ひとつ, ふたつ, みっつ system only goes as far as とお(10), after which the いち, に, さん system is used: 十一(じゅういち), 十二(じゅうに), 十三(じゅうさん), etc.
Note the word order: thing + を + numeral (or numeral and counter) + ください.
小さい is an adjective. Adjectives will be given in detail in Lesson 13 and Lesson 14.
In Lesson 14 it was pointed out that there are three words for this and that: これ, それ and あれ. The demonstratives この, その and あの are used with nouns and have similar meanings from the viewpoint of the speaker. Study the following diagram and the chart(see Appendix F) to understand the meaning of these words
いくつ "How many?"
(れい):フイルムをください。"Please give me some film."
はい、いくつですか。"Certainly sir, how many do you wish?"
<< Key Sentences >>
  1. このカメラは25000(えん)です。"This camera is ¥25,000."
  2. このりんごは(ひと)つ200(えん)です。"One of these apples is ¥200."
  3. これは日本(にほん)のカメラです。"This is Japanese camera."
  4. その(ちい)さい電池(でんち)(みっ)つください。"Please give me three of those small batteries."
<< Key Exercise >> Memorize how to count things 1-10 (using general Japanese traditional counting).
(See Lesson 2 for Abstract Number)
1: (ひと) 4: (よっ) 7: (なな) 10: (とお)
2: (ふた) 5: (いつ) 8: (やっ) 11: 十一(じゅういち)
3: (みっ) 6: (むっ) 9: (ここの) 12: 十二(じゅうに)
<< Homework >>
  1. Complete the questions so that they fit the answers.
    1. この電池(でんち)は(いくら)ですか。100(えん)です。
    2. (あれ)はいくらですか。あれは30,000(えん)です。
    3. あれは(イギリス)の切手(きって)ですか。
  2. Put the appropriate particles in the parentheses.(If a particle is not required, put an X in the parentheses.)
    1. これ()日本(にほん)()テープレコーダーです。
    2. カメラ()()せてください。
    3. ビール()15(ほん)()ください。
    4. これ()150(えん)です。
    5. この()りんご()(ひと)つ()200(えん)です。
  3. Translate into Japanese.
    1. How much is this?
    2. How much is this radio?
    3. My watch is not Japanese. It is American.
    4. Please show me that small tape recorder.
    5. Please give me 3 (rolls of) film.
      which film?
      That film.